The Sustainable Urban Housing in China Group has participated in
projects in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen.
Beijing Hui Long Guan
Initiated: May 2000
Partners: Tian Hong Development
Company and Tsinghua University
Shenzhen Wonderland Phase IV
Initiated: October 2000
Completed: Schematic Design
July 2000 - Construction to begin Spring 2001
Partners: Vanke Architecture
Technology Research Center
|Goals: The goal
has been to create a unique living environment appropriate to
a diverse community. This is achieved by juxtaposing apartments
of different sizes and qualities within the same apartment building.
This strategy serves to promote a satisfactory balance of factors
such as privacy and comfort. With respect to sustainable design
issues, specific attention has been paid to directional differences
within the building composition. The south and north sides are
more interchangeable with respect to natural ventilation issues.
Also of special consideration has been the relationship between
courtyard and non-courtyard sides of the buildings where a coupling
of unit pairs fosters a sense of both a front and backyard.
The second major effort of the proposal seeks to address issues
of sustainability at the urban scale. With a larger ground floor
footprint and an increased building surface area achieved by
staggering the plans, exposure to the outdoors for each unit
is increased. A central goal is to increase opportunities for
interaction with natural exterior conditions. This relationship
is mediated through the implementation of small, intimate courtyards.
Findings: In Shenzhen, we prioritized
cooling strategies, specifically shading and building orientation,
due to the weather conditions. This proposal provides a number
of strategies for reducing energy consumption. Like many of
the buildings in the master plan, our buildings are oriented
to provide high levels of north-south exposure in order to maximize
shading concerns. This orientation increases the amount of solar
gain in the winter, and the high sun angle in the summer requires
only slight overhangs to counteract the hot summer sun. Along
the east and west axis, the edges are perforated, so as to allow
for natural airflow ventilation from the east and to decrease
exposure from the intense afternoon sun from the west. Despite
the north-south orientation, we have also allowed for some east-west
exposure by staggering individual units, affording instances
of localized shading and cross-ventilation.
Accomplishments: We have developed
a very positive relationship with Vanke Shenzhen. The final
design scheme was presented in July 2000 and Vanke architects
will work to complete the design development and construction
document phases. We hope also to take an active role in these
stages. Construction is set to begin in the spring of 2001.
Planned accomplishments: A very
important aspect of this project involves the relationship of
MIT with the Wonderland Development after construction. Current
plans allow for MIT to perform post-occupancy evaluation to
measure occupant satisfaction, energy performance, and actual
vs. predicted values for lighting, ventilation, and energy statistics.
In addition, Vanke members have expressed interest in learning
the technological tools MIT has used in the project. We have
scheduled a training session in China for the summer of 2001.
Beijing Duoshi Gardens - 12
x 24 prototype
Initiated: Fall 1998
|Goals: to design a modular housing system to be
used in a low-rise, medium density setting Summary: The Beijing
12 x 24 project is a prototype design on the Duoshi Gardens
site of Beijing. Designed for a low-rise, medium density neighborhood,
each floor is composed of two 12 x 24 m2 apartments. The design
prioritizes natural ventilation through the apartments as each
unit has three exposed elevations. Fenestrations on eastern
and western facades are minimized to reduce heat gain in the
Shanghai Taidong Residential
Initiated: Fall 1999 Completed:
Partners: Tongji University
and Shanghai Housing Development Co.
|Goals: The design
began as a workshop project during the fall 1999 semester. Three
students submitted designs that were presented to the developer
in the fall of 2000. One scheme was selected, and then developed
in the semester that followed. In this investigation, the quality
of air, was an Findings: Natural ventilation is
Accomplishments: This project
explored deeply the issues of indoor air quality and detailed
ventilation studies. Through our technical studies, we were
able to change the design from a two-building development to
three, promoting a better environmental site plan.
Beijing Star Garden Architectural
Initiated: June 1999
Completed: February 2000
Partners: We worked very closely
with Tsinghua University on this project, establishing contact
via emails and weekly phone conferences.
|Goals: MIT and
Tsinghua's task was to design four 30+story towers on the Asian
Games site. The primary design goals were to examine site level
design, promote good ventilation for each building, and to understand
the 'microclimate' created at lower zone of all buildings. To
minimize circulation while promoting natural ventilation, a
circulation scheme was implemented that consisted of a skip-stop
elevator service that stops every 3 floors, thus creating a
mix of duplex and single-story apartments. Reduced capital and
maintenance costs as well as the creation of staggered social
spaces were some other benefits of this 3-story cluster system.
Each cluster is comprised of sixteen units, has one double-height
social space, and shares one elevator landing and circulation
corridor. Functions for the double-height atrium space could
be sky-lobbies, places for children to play, and landscaped
terraced gardens. To minimize heat loss in the winter due to
northern winds, service functions such as bathrooms, stairs,
and elevator cores are placed to the north.
Findings: In response to the
climate conditions in Beijing, the following recommendations
were made. In winter months, it is important to protect from
the cold winter winds, while letting the winter sun in. In the
spring and fall months, it is possible to take advantage of
natural ventilation and decrease the need for dehumidification.
In the summer months, in order to keep the temperature down,
it is essential to protect from the summer sun and minimizing
solar gains. Due to climate conditions, the siting of the building
had to maximize southern exposure and minimize northern exposure.
Beijing Site Design
Initiated: Fall 1998
Completed: Fall 1998
Partners: Tsinghua University
|Goals: Site Design
influenced by natural ventilation
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Last modified on December 13, 2000 by email@example.com.