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Construction, Energy and Environment Situation in Shanghai, China

Long Weiding
Professor and Head, Dept. of Facilities Engineering & Management, TONGJI UNIVERSITY


Construction of Shanghai

Population and land price in Shanghai

Higher density of population in urban area: 3,296p/km2 in average by 1998; 56,791 p/km2 in south part of Shangha.

Higher land price in CBD: land-use fee is 15.66US$/m2year. The residence area per capita in 1978 was 4.5m2 and increases to 10.2m2 in 1999.

The high rise buildings in Shanghai

Most of high rise buildings especially super high rise buildings constructed in Shanghai are grade A office buildings which have attracting location, advanced facilities, central air conditioning system, building automation system, good indoor environment, parking lot and grand appearance decoration.


The average floor area of one high rise building was 10,300sqm in 1978 and increased to 16,400 in 1998, which explained that not only quantity but also scale of high rise buildings are increasing.

45 high rise buildings in Shanghai have ranked in HOT 500 (tallest buildings in the World with height over 500feet or 152m).

Figure 1 Shanghai map

Figure 2 Increase of GDP and population of Shanghai in recent ten years

Figure 3 Tertiary industry proportion of Shanghai to GDP

Figure 4 Construction situation of the buildings over 8 stories in Shanghai

Figure 5 Increasing of Super High-Rise Buildings in Shanghai

Figure 6 Floor area of high rise buildings completed in the past few years in Lujiazui Developing Zone

Figure 7 Lujiazui Finance & Trade Zone in Shanghai Pudong New Area

Figure 8 Residential building area completed per annum in Shanghai

Figure 9 Increase of residence area per capita in Shanghai


Energy Study of Shanghai

Energy source in Shanghai

Coal is also the main energy source in Shanghai, which accounts for 76.1% of energy consumption in 1998. No any energy mineral resource in Shanghai.

On-peak powersource

It is estimated the on-peak power demand in this summer would reach to 9.7-10 million kW.

It is estimated among on-peak power demand there are about 2.5 million kW consumed by air conditioning.

Gas

The proportion of coal in Shanghai’s energy structure will be cut down to 55% and that of natural gas will increase to over 10% by 2010. Natural gas, 1.2 million m3 per day, from East Sea has been supplied to Shanghai since April 1999. LNG would be imported by ocean shipping.

Figure 10 Proportion of building energy consumption in total energy consumption of Shanghai

Figure 11 Power consumption proportion of buildings in gross power consumption of Shanghai

Figure 12 Coal consumption of electricity generation in China

Figure 13 Pollution caused by generating 1kWh power of different fuel

Figure 14 On-peak electric consumption of Shanghai in summer and difference between on-peak and off-peak

Figure 15 Possession of household air conditioner per 100 families in Shanghai

Figure 16 Coal consumption of 300MW generator under part load condition

Figure 17 Per capita energy consumption and emission of CO2 in Shanghai ranked the first comparing with other cities and provinces in China

Figure 18 Comparing power consumption per capita of Shanghai with other countries and regions

Figure 19 The increase speed of building energy consumption is faster than that of total energy consumption


Environment Situation in Shanghai

Figure 20 Atmosphere air quality of Shanghai in 1997

Figure 21 Atmosphere air quality of Shanghai in 1998

Figure 22 Ambient air temperature in Shanghai has increased in resent years due to global warming

Figure 23 Testing results of indoor air quality in 7 high-rise buildings of Shanghai

Figure 24 Monthly average index of inspecting data of atmosphere air quality in Shanghai

Figure 25 Relationship between indoor and outdoor PM10

Figure 26 Indoor thermal environment of 7 buildings in cooling season

 

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Last modified on November 27, 2000 by xfluo@mit.edu.
 
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